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Strain Species Genotype
AF6840 Unknown species Show Description
Isolated in Pennsylvania. Males are rare.
AF72 Mesorhabditis spiculigera Show Description
Mesorhabditis spiculigera. Isolated in Pennsylvania. NOTE: (06/10/2016) AF72 was originally described as Mesorhabditis miotki, but K. Kiontke has determined through morphological inspection that this is actually a strain of Mesorhabditis spiculigera.
AF7340 Unknown species Show Description
Isolated in Ohio.
AF8032 Unknown species Show Description
Isolated at Niagara Falls in Canada. SDS resistant dauers look like C. elegans predauers. Males are rare.
AFS205 C. elegans zen-4(cle5) IV. Show Description
Temperature-sensitive embryonic-lethal mutant. Maintain at 15C. Shift L4s to 25C overnight to observe mutant phenotype of embryos produced by adults. Mutants lack a central spindle during early embryonic mitosis and exhibits a late cytokinesis defect (cleavage furrows regress after ingressing in nearly to the center of dividing embryonic cells). This strain can be used for CRISPR-Cas9 co-conversion. There is a causal mis-sense mutation present in zen-4(cle5), GAC to AAC (D520N), and one silent mutation, GCA to GCT at codon 519, that introduces an AluI site for RFLP analysis. A previous deposited version of this strain, zen-4(ok153), possessed two mis-sense mutations: GAC to AAC (D520N) and GAT to AAT (D735N). Reference: Farboud B, et al. Genetics Early online November 30, 2018; https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.118.301775.
AFS222 C. elegans zen-4(cle10) IV. Show Description
Temperature-sensitive embryonic-lethal mutant. Maintain at 15C. Shift L4s to 25C overnight to observe mutant phenotype of embryos produced by adults. Mutants lack a central spindle during early embryonic mitosis and exhibits a late cytokinesis defect (cleavage furrows regress after ingressing in nearly to the center of dividing embryonic cells). This strain can be used for CRISPR-Cas9 co-conversion. There is a causal mis-sense mutation present in zen-4(cle10), GAC to AAC (D520N), and two silent mutations. One silent mutation is a CGA to CGG mutation at codon 523 that creates a recognition site for a Cas9 guide RNA, in order to use zen-4(cle10ts) as a CRISPR/Cas9 co-conversion marker. The other silent mutation is a GCA to GCT mutation at codon 519 that introduces an AluI site for RFLP analysis. Reference: Farboud B, et al. Genetics Early online November 30, 2018; https://doi.org/10.1534/genetics.118.301775.
AGK192 C. elegans unc-119(ed3) III; zdIs13 IV; armIs5. Show Description
zdIs13 [tph-1p::GFP] IV. armIs5 [zfp-1(fosmid)::FLAG + unc-119(+)]. Integrated zfp-1 transgene expressed in the germline. Fosmid-based zfp-1::FLAG transgene fully rescues stress-sensitivity and reduced lifespan in zfp-1(ok554) homozygotes. ChIP with anti-FLAG antibody detects ZFP-1::FLAG localization to promoters of highly expressed genes. References: Mansisidor AR, et al. PLoS Genet. 2011 Sep;7(9):e1002299. Avgousti DC, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Mar;33(5):999-1015. Cecere G, et al. Mol Cell. 2013 Jun 27;50(6):894-907.
AGK233 C. elegans unc-119(ed3) III; niDf199 IV; armEx58. Show Description
armEx58 [WRM0611aH08-Del8mer + unc-119(+)]. Pick non-Unc to maintain. This strain contains a transgenic array that expresses a derivative WRM0611aH08 fosmid. The WRM0611aH08 fosmid contains the niDF199 locus (around 4 kb) that is deleted in the natural C. elegans isolate strain JU258. JU258 worms lack specific 21U-RNAs normally present in N2 worms due to this deletion of the niDF199 locus. This derivative fosmid construct lacks the upstream 8-mer motif (CTGTTTCA) next to 21U-3372. The expression of this individual 21U-RNA is lost in transgenic animals. unc-119(ed3) was crossed into JU258, the niDf199IV deletion was confirmed by PCR, and these Unc worms were used for bombardment. Reference: Cecere G, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 Sep 14;47(5):734-45.
AGK234 C. elegans unc-119(ed3) III; niDf199 IV; armEx53. Show Description
armEx53 [WRM0611aH08 + unc-119(+)]. Pick non-Unc to maintain. unc-119(ed3) was crossed into JU258, the niDf199IV deletion was confirmed by PCR, and these Unc worms were used for bombardment. This strain contains a transgenic array that expresses the WRM0611aH08 fosmid construct. This fosmid contains the niDF199 locus (around 4 kb) that is deleted in the natural C. elegans isolate strain JU258. JU258 worms lack specific 21U-RNAs normally present in N2 worms due to this deletion of the niDF199 locus. Expression of this fosmid construct in JU258 worms restores the expression of the missing 21U-RNAs in the germline, as measured by RT-qPCR. Reference: Cecere G, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 Sep 14;47(5):734-45.
AGK26 C. elegans unc-119(ed3) III; armEx5. Show Description
armEx5 [zfp-1(fosmid)::GFP + unc-119(+)]. Pick non-Unc to maintain. Fosmid-based zfp-1::GFP transgene fully rescues stress-sensitivity and reduced lifespan in zfp-1(ok554) homozygotes. Nuclear expression of zfp-1::GFP is observed ubiquitously in somatic cells in all developmental stages; high levels of GFP expression is observed in oocytes with lower levels of expression in the distal germline. References: Mansisidor AR, et al. PLoS Genet. 2011 Sep;7(9):e1002299. Avgousti DC, et al. Mol Cell Biol. 2013 Mar;33(5):999-1015.
AGK532 C. elegans unc-119(ed3) III; niDf199 IV; armEx196. Show Description
armEx196 [mex-5p::unc-130::GFP::tbb-2 3'UTR + Cbr-unc-119(+)]. Pick non-Unc to maintain. unc-119(ed3) was crossed into JU258, the niDf199IV deletion was confirmed by PCR, and these Unc worms were used for bombardment. JU258 worms lack specific 21U-RNAs normally present in N2 worms due to deletion of the niDF199 locus. Reference: Cecere G, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 Sep 14;47(5):734-45. Reference: Cecere G, et al. Mol Cell. 2012 Sep 14;47(5):734-45.
AH159 C. elegans sra-13(zh13) II. Show Description
sra-13(zh13) mutants display stronger chemotaxis to limiting concentrations of isoamylalcohol and diacetyl than WT animals. Deletion allele. 396 bp of 5' promoter sequence and all but the last exon are removed; probably a null allele.
AH5059 C. elegans let-23(zh131[FRT::let-23::FRT::GFP::LoxP::FLAG::let-23]) II. Show Description
CRISPR allele of endogenous let-23, which expresses let-23::GFP fusion protein and is susceptible for conditional knock-out via incorporated FRT sites with FLPase expression. Reference: Konietzka et al. 2019. Current Biology (accepted).
AM263 C. elegans rmIs175. Show Description
rmIs175 [unc-54p::Hsa-sod-1 (WT)::YFP]. Array encodes wild-type human SOD-1. YFP expression in body wall muscle. Array is prone to silencing; maintain by picking worms displaying typical aggregation patterns. Reference: Gidalevitz T, et al., PLoS Genet. 2009 Mar;5(3):e1000399.
AM725 C. elegans rmIs290. Show Description
rmIs290 [unc-54p::Hsa-sod-1 (127X)::YFP]. Array encodes mutated form of human SOD-1. YFP expression in body wall muscle. Array is prone to silencing; maintain by picking worms displaying typical aggregation patterns. Reference: Gidalevitz T, et al., PLoS Genet. 2009 Mar;5(3):e1000399.
AMH25 C. elegans dhc-1(or352) I; sosIs5. Show Description
sosIs5 [rab-3p::Cerulean-Venus::lgg-1 + unc-119(+)]. Maintain at 15 degrees. Temperature-sensitive embryonic lethal. 100% dead embryos at 25 degrees. Small, posteriorly displaced first mitotic spindle with defective chomosome segregation and cytokinesis.
AMH57 C. elegans unc-33(mn407); olaEx3013. Show Description
olaEx3013 [ttx-3p:mCherry::eGFP::lgg-1 + unc-122p::mCherry]. Pick animals with mCherry+ coelomocytes to maintain array. Unc. Tandem tags on LGG-1 label immature autophagosomes with both GFP and mCherry, but because GFP is preferentially quenched in an acidic environment, mature structures lose their GFP signal and display solely mCherry signal. Reference: Hill SE & Colon-Ramos D. 2018 bioRxiv 287144; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/287144
AMH59 C. elegans unc-33(e204); olaEx3013. Show Description
olaEx3013 [ttx-3p:mCherry::eGFP::lgg-1 + unc-122p::mCherry]. Pick animals with mCherry+ coelomocytes to maintain array. Paralyzed Unc. Tandem tags on LGG-1 label immature autophagosomes with both GFP and mCherry, but because GFP is preferentially quenched in an acidic environment, mature structures lose their GFP signal and display solely mCherry signal. Reference: Hill SE & Colon-Ramos D. 2018 bioRxiv 287144; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/287144
AMH91 C. elegans unc-104(e1265) II; olaEx3013. Show Description
olaEx3013 [ttx-3p::mCherry::eGFP::lgg-1 + unc-122p::mCherry]. Pick animals with mCherry+ coelomocytes to maintain array. Unc. Slow moving. Tandem tags on LGG-1 label immature autophagosomes with both GFP and mCherry, but because GFP is preferentially quenched in an acidic environment, mature structures lose their GFP signal and display solely mCherry signal. Reference: Hill SE & Colon-Ramos D. 2018 bioRxiv 287144; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/287144
AMJ345 C. elegans jamSi2 II; rde-1(ne219) V. Show Description
jamSi2 [mex-5p::rde-1(+)] II. mex-5p::rde-1(+) inserted into ttTi5605 on LG II. Tissue-specific RNAi rescue allows silencing in germline and intestine. Reference: Marre JA, et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2016.
AML508 C. elegans unc-31(wtf502) IV; otIs669 V; wtfIs145; wtfIs348. Show Description
wtfIs145 [rab-3p::his-24::GCaMP6s::unc-54 3' UTR + pBX]. wtfIs348 [pAS3-5xQUAS::(delta)pes-10p::AI::gur-3G::unc-54 3' UTR + pAS3-5xQUAS::(delta)pes-10p::AI::prdx-2G::unc-54 3' UTR + pAS3-rab-3p::AI::QF+GR::unc-54 3' UTR + unc-122::GFP]. Keep plates covered to avoid unnecessary exposure to light. This strain expresses a purple light-sensitive optogenetic protein system (i.e., GUR-3 and PRDX-2) in each neuron, and GFP in coelomocytes. GCaMP6s transgene allows for imaging whole-brain calcium activity with neuronal identification using NeuroPAL system. unc-31(wtf502) is a CRISPR-engineered deletion allele. See description of strain OH15262 for full description of otIs669 NeuroPAL (Neuronal Polychromatic Atlas of Landmarks) transgene (Yemini E, et al. Cell. 2021 Jan 7;184(1):272-288.e11. PMID: 33378642). Derived by out-crossing parental strain OH15262 an additional six times before incorporating other transgenes. Reference: Randi F, et al. Nature 2023 Nov;623(7986):406-414. doi: 10.1038/s41586-023-06683-4. PMID: 37914938.
AMP100 C. elegans ieSi57 II; rpb-2(cer135[rpb-2::GFP(delta)piRNA::AID::3xFLAG]) III. Show Description
ieSi57 [eft-3p::TIR1::mRuby::unc-54 3'UTR + Cbr-unc-119(+)] II. cer135 is a rpb-2::GFP(delta)piRNA::AID::3xFLAG tag inserted into the endogenous rpb-2 locus. This strain allows auxin-dependent disruption of RNA polymerase II with dose-dependent lifespan shortening. Reference: Oswal N, et al. PLoS Comput Biol. 2022 Sep 30;18(9):e1010415. PMID: 36178967.
ANA65 C. elegans adeIs1 II; unc-119(ed3) III. Show Description
adeIs1 [mex-5::spd-1::GFP + unc-119(+)] II. The transgene has been inserted on chromosome II, using the MosSCI technique. This strains expresses the SPD-1 protein fused to GFP in the germline (both males and females) and in embryos. SPD-1 is nucleolar in interphase and labels the central spindle in mitosis and meiosis, later accumulating at the midbody. Reference: Nahaboo W, et al. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Jun 1;26(11):2020-9. doi: 10.1091/mbc.E14-12-1577.
ANA72 C. elegans adeIs1 II; unc-119(ed3) III; ltIs37 IV. Show Description
adeIs1 [mex-5::spd-1::GFP + unc-119(+)] II. ltIs37 [pie-1p::mCherry::his-58 + unc-119(+)] IV. Superficially wild-type. SPD-1::GFP and mCherry-tagged histones allow visualisation of chromatin with central spindle/midbody during cell divisions. Reference: Nahaboo W, et al. Mol Biol Cell. 2015 Jun 1;26(11):2020-9.
ANR149 C. elegans rrf-1(pk1417) I; pkIs2386. Show Description
pkIs2386 [unc-54p::alphasynuclein::YFP + unc-119(+)]. YFP expression in the muscles. Derived by crossing parental strains NL5901 and MAH23 to produce a Parkinson's model with germline-only RNAi. unc-119 might still be present in the background, but likely lost during crossing. Reference: Snow S, et al. (2024). Neuronal CBP-1 is required for enhanced body muscle proteostasis in response to reduced translation downstream of mTOR. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark.
ANR153 C. elegans rde-1(ne300) V.; neIs9 X; pkIs2386. Show Description
pkIs2386 [unc-54p::alphasynuclein::YFP + unc-119(+)]. neIs9 [myo-3::HA::rde-1 + rol-6(su1006)] X. Rollers. YFP expression in the muscles. Derived by crossing parental strains NL5901 and WM118 to produce a Parkinson's model with muscle-only RNAi. Reference: Snow S, et al. (2024). Neuronal CBP-1 is required for enhanced body muscle proteostasis in response to reduced translation downstream of mTOR. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark.
ANR165 C. elegans eif-2alpha(rog3) I. Show Description
eif-2alpha(rog3) is a (S49A) substitution allele (I:2073439..2073448; WS220) removing P site and PAM site. eif-2alpha (Y37E3.10) encodes the alpha subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2). Reference: Rollins J, et al. Loss of eif-2alpha phosphorylation on S49 (mammalian S51) associated with the integrated stress response hastens development in C. elegans. MicroPubl Biol. 2017;2017:10.17912/W2BM1S. doi: 10.17912/W2BM1S. Erratum in: MicroPubl Biol. 2020 Feb 27;2020: PMID: 32292896.
ANR168 C. elegans lin-15B(n744) X; pkIs2386; uIs57. Show Description
pkIs2386 [unc-54p::alphasynuclein::YFP + unc-119(+)]. uIs57 [unc-119p::YFP + unc-119p::sid-1 + mec-6p::mec-6]. YFP expression in the muscles. Parkinson's model with hypersensitive neuronal RNAi. Reference: Snow S, et al. (2024). Neuronal CBP-1 is required for enhanced body muscle proteostasis in response to reduced translation downstream of mTOR. Frontiers in Bioscience-Landmark.
ARK7 C. elegans spe-36(nwk1[spe-36::gfp]) IV; him-5(e1490) V. Show Description
GFP tag inserted into endogenous spe-36 (F40F11.4) locus. SPE-36::GFP expression in spermatids and spermatozoa. Reference: Krauchunas AR, et al. Curr Biol. 2023 Jul 24;33(14):3056-3064.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2023.06.051. PMID: 37453426.
AT28 C. elegans kyIs140 I; srf-6(yj13) unc-4(e120) II. Show Description
kyIs140 [str-2::GFP + lin-15(+)] I. Kinker; can't back up. srf-6 mutants express str-2::GFP in both AWC neurons (2AWC ON phenotype; wild-type phenotype is 1AWC ON): check for this phenotype to avoid reversion of srf-6(yj13). srf-6 mutants were originally identified by binding of an L1-specific antibody in later larval stages (L1-L4).
AUM1535 C. elegans drsh-1(viz43)/tmC18[dpy-5(tmIs1200[myo-2p::mVenus])] I. Show Description
[D943G] substitution mutation in conserved residue within RNAse III domain. Balancer marked with myo-2p::Venus. Pick fertile wild-type (non-Dpy) Venus+ to maintain. drsh-1(viz43) homozygous animals display heterochronic phenotypes beginning at L3/L4 molt and typically burst at the vulva in L4. Heterozygotes are wild-type with pharyngeal Venus fluorescence, and segregate Venus+ heterozygotes, non-Venus viz-43 homozygotes, and Dpy Venus+ tmC18 homozygotes. Reference: Barish S, et al. Human Mol Genet. 2022 Aug 25;31(17):2934-2950. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddac085. PMID: 35405010.
AUM1870 C. elegans ZK813.1(viz166[fln-1p::ZK813.1]) X. Show Description
The endogenous promoter of ZK813.1 (1046 bp) was replaced with the fln-1 promoter (947 bp) to limit the expression of ZK813.1 to the spermatheca and allow analysis of RNA transfer from soma to oocytes. Reference: Trimmer KA, et al. Cell Rep. 2023 May 23;42(6):112544. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2023.112544. PMID: 37227820. .
AV106 C. elegans spo-11(ok79) IV/nT1 [unc-?(n754) let-?] (IV;V). Show Description
Heterozygotes are Unc and segregate Uncs (heterozygotes), non-Unc spo-11 homozygotes, and dead eggs (nT1 homozygotes). spo-11 homozygotes produce an average of ~200 fertilized eggs but only about 0.1 progeny survive to adulthood. When mated to N2 males, spo-11 homozygotes will produce at least 5-10 cross progeny.
AV125 C. elegans spe-8(hc40) I; dpy-4(e1166) IV. Show Description
Can be maintained by chunking or setting up male/hermaphrodite crosses. Dpy.
AV157 C. elegans spo-11(me44)/nT1 [unc-?(n754) let-? qIs50] (IV;V). Show Description
Balanced heterozygotes are GFP+ Unc and segregate GFP+ Unc (heterozygotes), non-GFP non-Unc spo-11(me44) homozygotes, and dead eggs (nT1 homozygotes). spo-11(me44) homozygotes are viable and produce more than 90% dead eggs (a large fraction of the survivors are males — strong Him phenotype); cytologically they lack chiasmata in diakinesis-stage oocytes and lack RAD-51 foci. Maintain by picking Unc.
AV285 C. elegans swm-1(me66) him-5(e1490) V. Show Description
Sperm activation in virgin males. Poor sperm transfer.
AV322 C. elegans swm-1(me87) him-5(e1490) V. Show Description
Sperm activation in virgin males. Very poor sperm transfer.
AWR73 C. elegans aaim-1(kea22) X. Show Description
aaim-1 mutants are resistant to infection by N. parisii, but sensitive to infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. No defects in development or lifespan were observed. Reference: Tamim El Jarkass H, et al. eLife. 2022;11:e72458. PMID: 34994689.
AX2161 C. elegans tax-2(p694) I; lin-15B&lin-15A(n765) X; dbEx724. Show Description
dbEx724 [flp-6p::tax-2(cDNA)::SL2::GFP + lin-15(+)]. Pick non-Muv to maintain. Array rescues tax-2 in ASE using an ASE-specific flp-6p fragment. Reference: Bretscher AJ, et al. Neuron. 2011 Mar 24;69(6):1099-113.
AY156 C. elegans acIs156. Show Description
acIs156 [vit-2p::vit-2(G839R)::GFP + myo-2p::mCherry]. In contrast to VIT-2::GFP, VIT-2(G839R)::GFP remains in the intestine and is not transported to embryos. mCherry expression in pharynx. Reference: Singh J & Aballay A. MBio. 2017 May 30;8(3). pii: e00778-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00778-17.
AY161 C. elegans mul-1(syb1027) IV. Show Description
F49F1.6. mul-1(syb1027) [IV:4121342..4123166] is a CRISPR/Cas9-engineered ?1,650-bp deletion mutant of isoforms A and B (565 bp and 952 bp deleted, with generated termination codon), leaving a predicted truncated protein of 46 amino acids. Derived by out-crossing parental strain PHX1027 (Suny Biotech) with N2 six times. Reference: Hoffman CL, et al. mBio. 2020 Mar 3;11(2):e00060-20. PMID: 32127446
AY162 C. elegans mul-1(syb1027) IV; acEx162. Show Description
acEx162 [mul-1p::mul-1::SL2::GFP + myo-2p::mCherry]. Pick mCherry+ to maintain. GFP expression in the intestine. acEx162 transgene rescues mul-1(lf). mul-1(syb1027) [IV:4121342..4123166] is a CRISPR/Cas9 ?1,650-bp deletion mutant of isoforms A and B (565?bp and 952?bp deleted, with generated termination codon), leaving a predicted truncated protein of 46 amino acids. Reference: Hoffman CL, et al. mBio. 2020 Mar 3;11(2):e00060-20. PMID: 32127446
AY174 C. elegans mrp-1(pk89) X; acEx174. Show Description
acEx174 [ges-1p::mrp-1::GFP + unc-122p::RFP]. Pick GFP+ or RFP+ animals to maintain. Translational fusion of MRP-1::GFP driven by intestine-specific ges-1 promoter. Reference: Lalsiamthara J & Aballay A. Commun Biol. 2022 May 5;5(1):422. doi: 10.1038/s42003-022-03381-1. PMID: 35513700.
AY177 C. elegans acEx177. Show Description
acEx177 [ges-1p::mrp-1::GFP + vha-6::DsRed + unc-122p::RFP]. Pick RFP+ to maintain. Translationally fused MRP-1::GFP expressed under intestinal specific ges-1 promoter, MRP-1::GFP proteins localize at the basolateral membrane of the intestine. Translationally fused VHA-6::RFP expressed under its own promoter, VHA-6::RFP proteins localize at the lumen or luminal membrane of the intestine. For better results, observe fluorescence signals on the L4 stage animals and also under higher magnification microscopy. Reference: Lalsiamthara J & Aballay A. Commun Biol. 2022 May 5;5(1):422. doi: 10.1038/s42003-022-03381-1. PMID: 35513700.
AY190 C. elegans acEx190. Show Description
acEx190 [tax-2p::CZ::ced-3(p17)::unc-54 3’UTR + lim-6p::ced-3(p15)::NZ::unc-54 3’UTR + myo-3p::mCherry]. Pick mCherry+ to maintain.  ASG is ablated in animals carrying the array by employing a two-component system reconstituted caspase (recCaspase) using the tax-2 and lim-6 promoters.  Strain viable at all temperatures.  Reference Otarigho, B. and Aballay, A., 202. Cell reports, 35(8). PMID: 34038721.
AY191 C elegans acEx191. Show Description
acEx191 [odr-2p::CZ::ced-3(p17)::unc-54 3’UTR+ unc-53p::ced-3(p15)::NZ::unc-54 3’UTR + rol-6(su1006)]. Pick Rollers to maintain.  PVP is ablated in animals carrying the array by employing a two-component system reconstituted caspase (recCaspase) using the odr-2 and unc-53 promoters.  Strain viable at all temperatures.  Reference Otarigho, B. and Aballay, A., 202. Cell reports, 35(8). PMID: 34038721.
BA1013 C. elegans spe-6(hc49) vab-7(e1562)/qC1 [dpy-19(e1259) glp-1(q339)] III; spe-27(it132) IV. Show Description
Male/hermaphrodite line. Maintain at 15C to insure maintenance of male/hermaphrodite line.
BA1044 C. elegans spe-27(it132) spe-29(it127) IV; him-5(e1490) V. Show Description
Non-conditional hermaphrodite sterile. Males fertile. Self-progeny produced after mating.
BA1051 C. elegans spe-12(hc76) I; spe-29(it127) IV; him-5(e1490) V. Show Description
Self-sterile hermaphrodites; fertile males. Mated hermaphrodites produce self and outcross progeny. Self progeny are 33% males.
BA1061 C. elegans dpy-18(e364) spe-6(hc49) ale-1(mc14)/qC1 [dpy-19(e1259) glp-1(q339)] III. Show Description
Heterozygotes are WT and segregate WT, Sterile Dpys (Dpy is temperature sensitive), and dead eggs. ale-1 is a recessive embryonic lethal.